Work packet 1 (W.P.1) Selection of rivers- existing data

Supervisor W.P.1: Α. Βορεάδου

Participants: Ι. Τσάνης, Ε. Καρύμπαλης


W.P.1 aims to the appropriate river ecosystem selection of the study, and the collection of all the existing data, concerning them, so that this data can be inserted in the existing ES. More specifically the delivered packets of W.P.1 will include:


Α. The selection of the river ecosystems, which should be receivers of just nutritional polluting charges and not other pollutants. Those charges can originate either from (1) polluting sources spots (e.g. biological cleaning stations, urban or domestic sludge), or (2) pervasive sources of pollution (e.g. cultures in the river basin, pervasive urban or domestic sludge etc).


Β. The collection of the existing data for those ecosystems of the rivers, regarding both the river basin and the river bed. The data can either be the result of continuous observations and recordings of the qualified organizations or departments, or even from occasional recordings, and as a part of a research program or an administrative project, the main succession of these data should include:


1. Information concerning the river basin ecosystems of the studied rivers and the depiction of this information on a map with the use of the Geographical Information System (GIS), including:

  • Information on all the polluting sources spots
  • Information on the pervasive polluting sources (uses of land, population)
  • Elements of the geological structure of the river basins
  • Elements of the hydrologic dynamics of the river basins


2α. Information on the ecosystems of the study, concerning the river bed:

  • River bed inclinations
  • Types of the under layer of the river bed
  • Cover of river bank germination
  • Biological parameters (Biomass of small varec and microorganisms, structure and biomass of invertebrate fauna) (just one recording is adequate)


2β. Information on the ecosystems of the study, concerning the river bed. This main data sequence suffices to include just a single recording of the following, but however from more than one spots of the river bed.

  • Hydrological data (flow quantity, speed etc)
  • Physicochemical parameters (light, temperature, conductivity, resolvable oxygen, pH, SO4, Cl, HCO3, Ca, Mg, Na, K)
  • Nutritional elements N-NH4, N-NO3, Ν-ΝΟ2, P-PO4



Work Packet 2 (P.W.2) Main data sequence

Supervisor W.P.2: Ε. Καρύμπαλης

Participants: Α. Βορεάδου, Θ. Μανιός, Ι.Τσάνης


W.P.2 will aim to the completion of the main data sequence of the studied rivers, like the one defined in P.W.1, with those elements that will be found inadequate or absent, judged however indispensable for the proper functionality of ES. The already existing ES is designed in such a way, that it can function with a simple and basic data sequence (inputs), something that is relatively easy to be collected, it’s not particularly time consuming and it requires the minimum cost. Despite all that, P.W.2 is rated as necessary, given the fact that for many of the rivers of Crete, even this basic data sequence is inadequate or missing. For example, the Geographical Information System (GIS), is not completed yet in most of the rivers basins of Crete, the recordings of nutritional and other ions are rare, and the ecological evaluation of the quality of water surface, based on the biological ratio, anticipated by the Civic Instruction 60/2000, is missing. The completion of the basic data sequence mentioned above, may very well consume much time, depending on the deficiencies that will be recorded. So P.W.2 will result in the full-fledged basic data sequence, for the selected rivers, in order for this sequence to be inserted in the ES.


Work Packet 3 (P.W.3) A first evaluation of the ES

Supervisor W.P.3: Γ. Μαρκάκης

Participants: Ν. Σακκάς, Ε. Μαρακάκης, Ι. Τσάνης, Α. Βορεάδου


W.P.3 will have as a main target:

Α. The insertion of the full-fledged basic data sequence that will have been collected from W.P.1 and W.P.2 in the initial ES.

Β. The evaluation of the results that are given from the initial ES. The evaluation will be based on the correctness of the evaluation of the existing situation and the problems of the studied rivers through and the ability to apply the recommended solutions for those particular problems.


The result of W.P.3 will, therefore be, the first evaluation of the initial ES.


Work Packet 4 (W.P.4) Enriched data sequence

Supervisor W.P.4 Α. Βορεάδου

Participants: Συμμετέχοντες: Γ. Μαρκάκης, Β. Μανιός, Ε. Μαρακάκης, Ι. Τσάνης, Ε. Καρύμπαλης Θ. Μανιός


The Eastern Mediterranean area , where Crete is actually located, shows distinctivenesses, like mentioned in the introduction, when it comes to climatic data, which affect the structure and the functionality of Crete’s river ecosystems . It is not possible to evaluate all those distinctivenesses through an ES, which is designed for the whole Meditteranean basin. Keeping that in mind, the main purpose of W.P.4 will be the collection of selected and determinative information of the basic sequence. However one single recording will not be adequate anymore. Recordings on a seasonal basis will fit this purpose. The informotion will include:

  • Hydrological data (flow quantity, speed etc)
  • Physicochemical parameters (light, temperature, conductivity, resolvable oxygen, pH, SO4, Cl, HCO3, Ca, Mg, Na, K)
  • Nutritional elements N-NH4, N-NO3, Ν-ΝΟ2, P-PO4
  • Biological parameters (Biomass of small varec and microorganisms, structure and biomass of invertebrate fauna)


At the same time additional data must be collected, which according to our experience, are critical for the area of Crete and which will give us a better view of the studied rivers, like for example:

  • The vertical hydraulic gradient, through which we will evaluate the penetrability of the sediments and the transfer of large quantities of water to the underground aquifer.
  • The seasonal fluctuation of the organic carbon in the sediment, so that the effect of the of the riparian grounds to the river beds can be evaluated.




All the above elements, combined with those of the basic sequence, which have already been collected inW.P.1, will form the enriched data sequence. This new sequence will be inserted in the initial ΕS, so that it can be truly functional and effective for the administration of the rivers of Crete. Based on all the above, W.P.4 will include:


Α. The creation of the enriched data sequence

Β. Its insertion in the ES and

C. The evaluation of the results given by the initial ES.


W.P.4 will result to a new, enriched, data sequence and a second evaluation of the initial ES, based on this new data sequence.



Work Packet 5 (W.P.5) Final evaluation of ΕS – Improvements

Supervisor W.P.5 Ε. Μαρακάκης

Participants: Γ. Μαρκάκης, Ν. Σακκάς, Ι. Τσάνης, Α. Βορεάδου


W.P.5 will aim to the co evaluation of the first and the second evaluation of W.P.3 and W.P.4. A basic part of W.P.5 will also be the effort to adjust and improve the ES, so that it cane become more efficient and applicable to the rivers of Crete. The main interventions are about changes to the Decision Trees, which already form the main body of ΕS, or even the creation of new ones. For the improvement of the functionality of ES and its better adjustability to the ecological conditions of the rivers of Crete, innovative technologies will be applied even to its structure, like Fuzzy Logic, which we presume that will ascribe with even more precision the fluctuation of basic parameters, like for example, temperature or water flow. The result of W.P.5 will be an improved ΕS, ES-Cr, in CD-ROM form, that will be user-friendly and will include a manual.


Work Packet 6 (W.P.6) Result diffusion

Supervisor: Β. Μανιός

Participants: Γ. Μαρκάκης, Ν.Σακκάς, Ε.Μαρακάκης, Ι. Τσάνης, Ε.Καρύμπαλης, Α. Βορεάδου, Θ.Μανιός


W.P.6 will aim to the diffusion of the results and of ΕS- Cr, to all the organizations or departments, that deal with the administration of the surface waters of Crete. The goals of W.P.6 will be achieved through

  • Results publications in scientific magazines
  • Articles and interviews in the media
  • Meetings (or galas) of projection




Work Packet 7 (W.P.7) Design –Creation of educational material

Supervisor W.P.7: Ν. Σακκάς

Participants: Γ. Μαρκάκης, Ε. Μαρακάκης, Α. Βορεάδου


W.P.7 will have as its main target, the design and the creation of educational material, based on the thought that, educational applications of research programs and the transfer of knowledge from the experts to their students or pupils, is a highly important procedure, a target of a high value, which forms a link between science and the public. Its design however, should be really careful, so that it can achieve its educational goals.

The material will include a DEMO version of ΕS-Cr, which can be used by students of departments that are concerned with environmental issues. The above application will help the users to appreciate the situation in a river and will suggest certain solutions for several problems.